HBase - Hadoop database
HBase provides support to handle BigTable - billions of rows X millions of columns. It is a scalable, distributed, versioned, column-oriented store modeled after Google's Bigtable and runs on top of HDFS (Hadoop Distributed Filesystem). It features compression, in-memory operation per-column. Data could be replicated between the nodes. HBase is used in Facebook and Twitter.
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Hypertable is based on Google's Bigtable Design, which is a proven scalable design that powers hundreds of Google services. Many of the current scalable NoSQL database offerings are based on a hash table design which means that the data they manage is not kept physically ordered. Hypertable keeps data physically sorted by a primary key and it is well suited for Analytics.
Scalaris is a scalable, transactional, distributed key-value store. It was the first NoSQL database, that supported the ACID properties for multi-key transactions. It can be used for building scalable Web 2.0 services. Scalaris uses a structured overlay with a non-blocking Paxos commit protocol for transaction processing with strong consistency over replicas.
VoltDB was specifically designed for contemporary software applications that are pushed beyond their limits by high volume data sources. VoltDB provides the ability to capture, store and process incoming data at millions of read/write operations per second. And VoltDB’s relational model opens that data to be analyzed in real-time, using familiar Business Intelligence tools, to identify data patterns and trends, spot anomalies, or perform tracking and alerting.
HyperGraphDB is a general purpose, open-source data storage mechanism based on a powerful knowledge management formalism known as directed hypergraphs. While a persistent memory model designed mostly for Knowledge management, Artificial Intelligence and Semantic web projects, it can also be used as an embedded object-oriented database for Java projects of all sizes. It could also be used as graph database or as (non-SQL) relational database.
Cloudata is Distributed Large scale Structured Data Storage, and open source project implementing Google's Bigtable. It's DBMS(Database Management System), but not Relational DBMS. It can store more than Peta bytes.
The Apache Cassandra Project develops a highly scalable second-generation distributed database, bringing together Dynamo's fully distributed design and Bigtable's ColumnFamily-based data model. Cassandra is suitable for applications that can't afford to lose data. Data is automatically replicated to multiple nodes for fault-tolerance.
RethinkDB is built to store JSON documents, and scale to multiple machines with very little effort. It has a pleasant query language that supports really useful queries like table joins and group by, and is easy to setup and learn. It supports JSON data model, Distributed joins, subqueries, aggregation, atomic updates, Hadoop-style map/reduce.
Terrastore is a modern document store which provides advanced scalability and elasticity features without sacrificing consistency. Terrastore is based on Terracotta, so it relies on an industry-proven, fast (and cool) clustering technology. Terrastore is accessed through the universally supported HTTP protocol. Terrastore is a distributed document store supporting single-cluster and multi-cluster deployments.
Solr is the popular, blazing fast open source enterprise search platform from the Apache Lucene project. Its major features include powerful full-text search, hit highlighting, faceted search, dynamic clustering, database integration, and rich document (e.g., Word, PDF) handling. Solr is highly scalable, providing distributed search and index replication, and it powers the search and navigation features of many of the world's largest internet sites.
MongoDB (from "humongous") is a scalable, high-performance, open source, dynamic-schema, document-oriented database. MongoDB bridges the gap between key-value stores (which are fast and highly scalable) and traditional RDBMS systems.